Activity-based management can be used by managers in identifying the scope for cost reduction. One approach is to consider a ‘hierarchy’ Cheap Dak Prescott Jersey , which means thinking about the structure of costs at different levels, starting at the level of the units of output and moving up the organization to the level of the entire service or production facility. For each level of costs the manager asks: ‘What drives costs?’ Then the manager asks ‘How efficient is this activity and can we manage these costs more effectively?’ Customers are essential to an entity because they provide sales revenue, but there are also costs associated with gaining and retaining customers. If the drivers of customer-related costs are understood Cheap Ezekiel Elliott Jersey , then the costs can be managed more effectively. Drivers of customer costs are:
• Location of customers. The distance and geographical spread of customers drives the cost of making contact, communication and delivering to customers.
• Supply and delivery costs. If customers order small amounts of product frequently then there will be higher costs associated with taking orders, making up delivery packages and arranging delivery.
• Sales and promotion costs (including discounts and other incentives). These will be higher if there are more potential customers or new potential markets for products. These costs will be lower if the business relies largely on established customers making repeat orders.
• Quality costs. Some customers may specify standards of quality that cause additional costs to be incurred. If the quality is not sufficiently high the customers may be lost.
• After-sales service or warranty costs. Customers may have paid additional fees for after-sales service or repairs under warranty but it is still important to control costs within that amount in order to avoid losses while offering a competitive service. If the managers of a business understand customer-driven costs they can make strategic decisions about the relative costs of different types of marketing initiatives. One strategy might be to find a small number of high-value customers and invest effort in customer retention and loyalty. An alternative strategy might be to target larger numbers of smaller-value customers and accept a higher rate of customer replacement. Each strategy drives customer-related costs in a different way.
A Technical Briefing published by the Chartered Institute of Management Accountants (CIMA 2001) summarizes the activity-based management model as described by Miller (1996). It explains that ABM has grown out of the work of the Texas-based Consortium for Advanced Manufacturing-International (CAM-I). ABM thinking is not confined to manufacturing businesses because activity-based thinking can equally well apply to service businesses and not-for-profit organizations. The Technical Briefing provides a summary of the circumstances that make ABM useful. It explains that ABC becomes ABM when it is used to:
• design products and services that meet or exceed customers’ expectations Wholesale Dallas Cowboys Hats , while making a profit;
• indicate that improvements in quality, efficiency and speed are needed;
• guide decisions on product mix or investment;
• choose among alternative suppliers;
• choose methods of targeting markets and customers, and of providing delivery or service to customers;
• Improve the value of the organization’s products or services.
The advancement of technology has enhanced our way of living in such a way that everything will be coming with options for everyone. People can shop with different options – walk thru Wholesale Dallas Cowboys Hoodies , online, etc. They can book flights, schedule activities Wholesale Dallas Cowboys Shirts , basically every single task. Even learning has different options nowadays as compared to the homogenous classroom environment each of the old generation experienced before. Modern teaching methods are currently doing away with the same old school way of textbooks and lectures but rather, they are innovating tasks for more student interaction.
Blended learning is a diversified approach in learning which takes place with different media.
• In class learning – a group method with a teacher or facilitator in traditional classroom scenario or other flexible places with conducive atmosphere for learning (garden, museum Wholesale Dallas Cowboys Jerseys , parks, etc.)
• Online learning – learning through the internet. The students browse over different assigned sites, interact Wholesale Cowboys Hats , play, and learn to improve their academic aptitude. Consultation with teachers online is also available.
• Independent learning – a self-directed method accomplished through skill-honing assignments from the teacher. As the most flexible method, it gives students the opportunities to pursue their areas of interests.
Advantages of Blended Learning
The diversification of means of learning makes it more effective and lively. This atmosphere creates more interests and interaction. Benefits in curriculum include self-paced Wholesale Cowboys Hoodies , easier instructed classroom delivery, and improved strand of instruction. These benefits are suitable for self-interested and enthusiastic individuals who wanted to learn.
The varied tools and diversity of approaches balance over the different sources of methodologies making a comfortable training and varied concentration levels over different learning activities. Scheduling of learning classes is also possible reducing travel and cost spent for materials.
Disadvantages of Blended learning
Along with the merits, there are also a few disadvantages of blended learning. Lack of interest and poor learning habits amongst the learners are the major drawbacks. Having slow internet connection Wholesale Cowboys Shirts , unavailability of teachers on call, and lack of motivation. Wholesale Jerseys From China Cheap Sports Jerseys Cheap Hoddies Cheap Jerseys Wholesale Cheap College Jerseys Wholesale Cheap T-shirts Cheap NHL T-shirts Cheap NFL Hats Cheap Baseball T-shirts Cheap Shirts China