WASHINGTON Cheap Hydro Flask 40 OZ Wide Mouth , July 11 (Xinhua) -- A strange form of ice that's found naturally only on alien worlds has been captured being frozen from water in real time on Earth for the first time, U.S. researchers said Tuesday.
In a study published online in the U.S. journal Physical Review Letters, researchers at the Stanford University described how ice VII, or ice seven, which normally forms in environments such as when icy planetary bodies collide Cheap Hydro Flask 18 OZ Standard Mouth , was created and imaged in the lab in just billionths of a second.
"These experiments with water are the first of their kind, allowing us to witness a fundamental disorder-to-order transition in one of the most abundant molecules in the universe," said study lead author Arianna Gleason, a postdoctoral fellow at Los Alamos National Laboratory and a visiting scientist in the Extreme Environments Laboratory of Stanford's School of Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences.
Under regular conditions on our planet's surface Cheap Hydro Flask 21 OZ Standard Mouth , water crystallizes in only one way, dubbed ice Ih or simply "hexagonal ice," whether in glaciers or ice cube trays in the freezer.
To create ice VII, Stanford researchers used the Linac Coherent Light Source, the world's most powerful X-ray laser.
First Cheap Hydro Flask Hydration , the science team beamed an intense, green-colored laser at a small target containing a sample of liquid water.
The laser instantly vaporized layers of diamond on one side of the target, generating a rocket-like force that compressed the water to pressures exceeding 50,000 times that of Earth's atmosphere at sea level.
As the water compacted, a second beam from an instrument called the X-ray Free Electron Laser arrived in a series of bright pulses Cheap Hydro Flask 32 OZ Wide Mouth Straw Lid , each of which lasts only a femtosecond, or a quadrillionth of a second.
Akin to camera flashes, this X-ray laser snapped a set of images on the progression of molecular changes as the pressurized water crystallized into ice VII.
The phase change took just six billionths of a second, or nanoseconds, and during this process Cheap Hydro Flask Straw Lid , the water molecules bonded into rod shapes, and not spheres as theory predicted, the team said.
Delving into extraterrestrial ice types, including ice VII, will help scientists model such remote environments as comet impacts Cheap Hydro Flask Ombre 40 OZ Wide Mouth , the internal structures of potentially life-supporting, water-filled moons like Jupiter's Europa, and the dynamics of jumbo, rocky, oceanic exoplanets called super-Earths.
"Any icy satellite or planetary interior is intimately connected to the object's surface Cheap Hydro Flask Ombre 32 OZ Wide Mouth ," Gleason said. "Learning about these icy interiors will help us understand how the worlds in our solar system formed and how at least one of them, so far as we know, came to have all the necessary characteristics for life."
Muhammad Ali is often hailed as "The Greatest" - a boxing champion, a civil rights icon.
On Hollywood's Walk of Fame, he is also one of a kind. His star is the only one of more than 2 cheap hydro flask ombre ,500 honoring celebrities that is not on the sidewalk along Hollywood Boulevard in Los Angeles.
It's at eye level, on a wall next to the Walk of Fame, just in front of the Dolby Theatre.
As usually happens when an actor or singer honored with a star dies, mourners have flocked to Ali's star to snap pictures and leave flowers since the heavyweight champion died Friday in Arizona at age 74.
Mounting the star on the wall was a break with tradition. Ali did not want people to walk upon his name.
"I bear the name of our beloved prophet Muhammad, and it is impossible that I allow people to trample over his name http://www.cheaphydroflaskbottlesale.com/ ," said Ali, who converted to Islam in the 1960s.
RIO DE JANEIRO， Aug. 19 (Xinhua) -- Liu Hong's long wait for an Olympic medal ended on Friday when the Chinese world record holder won a thrilling 20km race walk at the Rio Games.
The 29-year-old clocked one hour 28 minutes and 35 seconds to beat Mexico's Maria Guadalupe Gonzalez by just two seconds.
China's Lu Xiuzhi took bronze， only seven seconds behind her teammate.
"It was hard because the weather wasn't that good，" Liu said of the hot conditions. "The only thing I could do was keep going， do my best and try to make it perfect."
Gonzalez became the only second woman representing Mexico to claim an Olympic medal in athletics， following the silver medal by Ana Guevara in the women's 400m in 2004.
"I feel good. I was hoping to get the gold and I raced as hard as I could and gave it everything. But I am happy. Next time I will have to race harder，" she said.
Italy's Antonella Palmisano was fourth and China's Qieyang Shijie fifth.
Liu finished fourth in the race at both the Beijing 2008 and London 2012 Olympics. She rebounded from those setbacks by posting a world record of 1:24:38 in Spain last year.
"It means a lot to me. I have been doing this sport for more than 10 years now，" Liu added. "This time I was doing my best to get a medal and I am pleased I could get the gold."
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